Environmental Impact Assessment, or EIA, is a process or research that estimates the environmental impact of a proposed industrial or infrastructure project. Category A projects require mandatory environmental clearance and thus they do not undergo the screening process. Environment Impact Assessment Notification of 2006 has decentralized the environmental clearance projects by categorizing the developmental projects in two categories, i.e., Category A and Category B . However, after 1990, a number of countries in developed economies adopted SEA. Some countries such as Canada and Denmark have made provision for SEA of policy, plans and programmes separately from EIA legislation and procedure.
The intent was to revise the MIL version in accordance with commercial practices in order to broaden the suitability of the standard for other government agencies and commercial industry. EIA632 provides a comprehensive, structured, disciplined approach for all life cycle phases. The systems engineering process is applied iteratively throughout the system life cycle. Key aspects of industry’s initiatives are captured to better identify and integrate requirements and implement multi-disciplinary teamwork, including potential suppliers, early in establishing the requirements. Other key aspects include establishing clear measurements of system responsiveness, encouraging innovation in products and practices, and focusing on process control rather than inspection. A number of projects with significant environmental and social impacts have been excluded from the mandatory public hearing process.
Of the monitoring plan’s and mitigation measures’ financial costs. Environmental Impact Assessment is a tool that planners can use to achieve the goal of environmental preservation while still allowing for development. The online registration form has to be filled and the certification exam fee needs to be paid. More details will be made available when the exam registration form is published. Emergency preparedness plans are not discussed in sufficient details and the information not disseminated to the communities.
The notification makes it mandatory for various projects such as mining, thermal power plants, river valley, infrastructure and industries including very small electroplating or foundry units to get environment clearance. However, unlike the EIA Notification of 1994, the new legislation has put the onus of clearing projects on the state government depending on the size/capacity of the project. Environment Impact Assessment or EIA can be defined as the study to predict the effect of a proposed activity/project on the environment. A decision making tool, EIA compares various alternatives for a project and seeks to identify the one which represents the best combination of economic and environmental costs and benefits. The EIA notification needs to build within it an automatic withdrawal of clearance if the conditions of clearance are being violated and introduce more stringent punishment for noncompliance. At present the EIA notification limits itself to the stage when environmental clearance is granted.
Consultation with public is optional and depends on the discretion of the expert committee. EIA is basically a tool used to assess the positive and negative environmental, economic and social eia methodology impacts of a project. This is used to predict the environmental impacts of a project in the pre-planning stage itself so that decisions can be taken to reduce the adverse impacts.
This often results in poor representation of the issues and impacts in the report, adversely affecting the quality of the report. No provision in place to cover landscape and visual impacts in the Indian EIA regulations Proper consideration of alternatives in EIA The consideration of alternatives in developing countries is more or less absent. Same as developing countries The process of screening is well defined. For instance, in EU countries competent authorities decide whether EIA is required after seeking advice from developer, NGO and statutory consultees.
UNEP defines Environmental Impact Assessment as a tool used to identify the environmental, social, and economic impacts of a project prior to decision-making. Certain activities permissible under the Coastal Regulation Zone Act, 1991 also require similar clearance. Additionally, donor agencies operating in India like the World Bank and the ADB have a different set of requirements for giving environmental clearance to projects that are funded by them. The MoEF recently notified new EIA legislation in September 2006.
SEA represents a proactive approach to integrating environmental considerations into the higher levels of decision-making. The Environment Protection Act of 1986, which incorporates numerous rules on EIA methodology and procedure, provides legal backing for environmental impact assessments in India. Department of Defense determined in 1994 that MIL-STD-499B would not be released as a military standard. EIA’s Committee on Systems Engineering (the “EIA G-47 Committee”) agreed to undertake the task of “demilitarizing” 499B and releasing it as an industry standard.
For instance, EIA is not mandatory in many African countries Formal legislation for EIA. It has been enacted by making an amendment in the Environment Protection Act 1986. In developed countries, active involvement of all participants including competent authority, government agencies and affected people at early stages of the EIA. This makes the process more robust and gives a fair idea of issues, which need to be addressed in the initial phase of EIA. Limited involvement of public and government agencies in the initial phases.
Properly conducted EIA also lessens conflicts by promoting community participation, informing decision makers, and helping lay the base for environmentally sound projects. Benefits of integrating EIA have been observed in all stages of a project, from exploration and planning, through construction, operations, decommissioning, and beyond site closure. UNEP defines Environmental Impact Assessment as a tool used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to decision-making.
EIA enables the decision makers to analyse the effect of developmental activities on the environment well before the developmental project is implemented. EIA provides a cost effective method to eliminate or minimize the adverse impact of developmental projects. Once alternatives have been reviewed, a mitigation plan should be drawn up for the selected option and is supplemented with an Environmental Management Plan to guide the proponent towards environmental improvements.
Developed countries EIA in developing countries EIA in India Well-framed EIA legislation in place. For instance, in Canada, Canadian Environmental Assessment Act regulates EIA while EU countries are guided by Directive on EIA . Lack of formal EIA legislation in many developing countries.
Other countries such as Czech Republic, Slovakia, etc have introduced SEA requirements through reforms in EIA legislation and in case of United Kingdom through environmental appraisal. While in New Zealand and Australia, it is a part of resource management or biodiversity conservation regimes. The adoption of SEA is likely to grow significantly in the coming years especially with directives by European Union and Protocol to the UNECE Convention on Transboundary EIA by signatory countries .
Besides this, funding organisations such as World Bank, ADB and ERDB have provision for consultation with the affected people and NGOs during identification of issues in scoping exercise. Scoping process in most developing countries is very poorly defined. In many countries including China, Pakistan, etc. there is no provision for scoping. In some countries like in Nigeria and Indonesia, a term of reference is followed for scoping while in some countries like Ghana, Taiwan and Chile, a general checklist is followed.